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SESP cluster research’s activity includes:

  • to develop sustainable energy systems comprise of: energy sub-system from extraction of resources, conversion, transportation, and energy usage; environment sub-system comprising of GHG reduction and life cycle analysis; economy sub-system that consisting of macro –economic, cost-benefit analysis and ecological economics, and social sub-system espacially related to energy access, proverty, and inclusion as well as culture;
  • to propose sustainable energy policy that can suppport in achieving sustainable development. In general this policy consist of multi-objective and multi-scale desicion criteria.

Natural Gas Systems and Policy

Natural gas system in Indonesia is characterized by a complex logistic of archipelago state linking gas sources and demand centers. The supply chain includes gas production in remote locations, processing and transportation and end-user using specific gas infrastructure depending on size of gas market and their distances as well as import and export. Combined this complexity of logistic with dynamic industrial change would be an interesting research topic. This research group covers the studies of LNG supply chain optimization, natural gas market modeling and optimization, and small-scale LNG system dedicated to supply gas to power eastern Indonesia.

Low-Carbon Energy Systems

As a result of COP21 held in Paris, Indonesia is committed to reduce greenhouse gas emission by 29% compared to business as usual (BAU) scenario that is projected approximately 2.881 GtCO2e in 2030. However, Indonesia’s economies are still mainly driven by fossil fuels and carbon-intensive industries with its total GHG emissions 2,161 MtCO2 (4.47% of world total). Initiatives and innovative solutions are needed to be taken to implement a cleaner technology in combating global warming. The method will look up to existing clean technologies which have been or to be applied in industries who contribute as GHG producers in Indonesia, namely Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CCUS). The studies also include technical, environmental and economic aspects to support policy planning which is mostly based on least cost objective and less consider the environmental aspect.

Renewable Energy Systems

Indonesia has abundant renewable energy sources but the utilizations are still limited due to the barriers for development such as lack of financing, technology, effective policy and appropriate pricing mechanism. Renewable energy has vital role in the future energy supply for the country and to increase energy access. However, the archipelago country with more than 17,000 islands have a unique challenge for research to develop renewable energy in multi-regions in which some of renewable energy cannot be traded among the islands. The research topics include optimization of conversion process of biomass from palm oil empty fruit bunch to co-produce ethanol, furfural, and electricity, and bio-hydrogen production from bio-oil and sugary wastewater.

Multiregional Energy Systems and Sectoral Analysis

Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelagic country with more than 17,000 thousand islands where all renewable energy sources are spread out. Thus, transporting energy, as in fuels or electricity, from main islands to small islands is one of the biggest challenges Indonesia is currently facing. Consequently, islands need to be self-sufficient in producing energy, mostly used for electricity. The method covers studies on how to optimize multi-regional electricity systems and to optimize deployment of renewable energy technologies on islands. This study will eventually aid policy makers in national energy planning.

Island Energy Systems

According to MEMR 2017, approximately 2,500 out of 82,000 villages in Indonesia have no electricity access. The geographical situation of Indonesia contributes to difficulties in connecting rural areas to the national grid. There is also the economical challenge, where the insufficient end-consumers leads to uncertainty in investment. This lack of energy access lead to lower economic growth in those areas. Providing access to electricity will improve the quality of life and the social well-being of its population as energy access is the main driver to trigger rural development. One of the solutions is to create an off-grid, mini-grid, or micro-grid system, providing distributed power generation at the point of consumption, the community or village. The electricity can be supplied by generators – based on diesel, solar PV, wind, biofuels, hydbrid, etc. In addition, when performing techno-economic study of power plant in remote areas, it is important to also take into account the financial, fiscal and the local community activities.

Smart Energy Systems and Circular Economy

Indonesia’s growing population and rapid urbanization result in the increase of energy demand and consumption, along with enormous challenges in municipal solid waste (MSW) management. Indonesia is required to improve the efficiency of power generation and utilization, and to implement MSW management for energy recovery in urban area. Researches have been aimed to investigate and improve the urban energy consumption, mostly in residential, commercial, transportation, and industrial sectors. One of the solution is to create a Smart Energy City (SEC) system, to obtain power generated from waste-to-energy power plants. Other is to improve the urban cooling system which are still depend on electricity, by creating integrated energy system through Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CCHP). The researches will be conducted through the environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) along with life cycle cost analysis and social life cycle analysis (SLCA), resulting in the life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA). The approach will develop a model that identify optimal and sustainable solutions, contributing to the development of a circular economy in Indonesia.

Energy security and sustainability

The rapid economic and population growth in Indonesia will keep increasing the demand of energy, water, and food. The country will face the challenge to overcome the limited resources to meet this growing demand. Water-food-energy nexus has become an interesting research topic to meet this challenge. This research cluster aim to identify the interrelationships of these three inseparable resources. The approach provides integrated solutions and equitable objectives between economic, social and environmental by accounting for the water, energy, and food resources. In example, the study of sustainable biofuel from palm oil would be undertaken in such holistic approach by also considering food, water, and energy balance. The integrated method would be as important tools to support policy makers to reach sustainable development goals.

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